Sunday, May 24, 2020

Epicurus His Philosophy of Pleasure

Wisdom hasnt come a step further since Epicurus but has often gone many thousands of steps backwards.​Friedrich Nietzsche About Epicurus Epicurus (341-270 B.C.) was born in Samos and died in Athens. He studied at Platos Academy when it was run by Xenocrates. Later, when he joined his family on Colophon, Epicurus studied under Nausiphanes, who introduced him to the philosophy of Democritus. In 306/7 Epicurus bought a house in Athens. It was in its garden that he taught his philosophy. Epicurus and his followers, who included slaves and women, secluded themselves from the life of the city. The Virtue of Pleasure Epicurus and his philosophy of pleasure have been controversial for over 2000 years. One reason is our tendency to reject pleasure as a moral good. We usually think of charity, compassion, humility, wisdom, honor, justice, and other virtues as morally good, while pleasure is, at best, morally neutral, but for Epicurus, behavior in pursuit of pleasure assured an upright life. It is impossible to live a pleasant life without living wisely and honorably and justly, and it is impossible to live wisely and honorably and justly without living pleasantly. Whenever any one of these is lacking, when, for instance, the man is not able to live wisely, though he lives honorably and justly, it is impossible for him to live a pleasant life.Epicurus, from Principal Doctrines Hedonism and Ataraxia Hedonism (a life devoted to pleasure) is what many of us think of when we hear Epicurus name, but ataraxia, the experience of optimal, enduring pleasure, is what we should associate with the atomist philosopher. Epicurus says we should not try to increase our pleasure beyond the point of maximum intensity. Think of it in terms of eating. If youre hungry, theres pain. If you eat to fill the hunger, you feel good and are behaving in accordance with Epicureanism. In contrast, if you gorge yourself, you experience pain, again. The magnitude of pleasure reaches its limit in the removal of all pain. When such pleasure is present, so long as it is uninterrupted, there is no pain either of body or of mind or of both together. Satiation According to Dr. J. Chander*, in his course notes on Stoicism and Epicureanism, for Epicurus, extravagance leads to pain, not pleasure. Therefore we should avoid extravagance. Sensual pleasures move us towards ataraxia, which is pleasing in itself. We should not pursue endless stimulation, but rather seek out enduring satiation. All desires that do not lead to pain when they remain unsatisfied are unnecessary, but the desire is easily got rid of, when the thing desired is difficult to obtain or the desires seem likely to produce harm. The Spread of Epicureanism According to The Intellectual Development and Spread of Epicureanism, Epicurus guaranteed the survival of his school (The Garden) in his will. Challenges from competing for Hellenistic philosophies, notably, Stoicism and Skepticism, spurred Epicureans to develop some of their doctrines in much greater detail, notably their epistemology and some of their ethical theories, especially their theories concerning friendship and virtue. Stranger, here you will do well to tarry; here our highest good is pleasure. The caretaker of that abode, a kindly host, will be ready for you; he will welcome you with bread, and serve you water also in abundance, with these words: Have you not been well entertained? This garden does not whet your appetite; but quenches it. Anti-Epicurean Cato In 155 B.C., Athens exported some of its leading philosophers to Rome, where Epicureanism, in particular, offended conservatives like Marcus Porcius Cato. Eventually, however, Epicureanism took root in Rome and can be found in the poets, Vergil (Virgil), Horace, and Lucretius. Pro-Epicurean Thomas Jefferson More recently, Thomas Jefferson was an Epicurean. In his 1819 Letter to William Short, Jefferson points up the shortcomings of other philosophies and the virtues of Epicureanism. The letter also contains a short Syllabus of the doctrines of Epicurus. Ancient Writers on the Topic of Epicureanism EpicurusDiogenes LaertiusLucretiusCiceroHoraceLucianCornelius NeposPlutarchSenecaLactantiusOrigen Sources David John Furley Epicurus Whos Who in the Classical World. Ed. Simon Hornblower and Tony Spawforth. Oxford University Press, 2000. Hedonism and the Happy Life: The Epicurean Theory of Pleasure, Stoicism and Epicureanism, class/ethics/stoicism/default.html

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

How to Help Australians in Poverty - 654 Words

Do any of you wake up one morning and not know if you’re going to be able to have a decent meal for the whole day? or not being able to have a shower and brush your teeth? What even being able to drink clean water? These questions may seem extreme or over the top, but it is a complete reality to those living under extreme poverty. According to research of the oxford dictionary , poverty is the state of being extremely poor. My goal here is to inform you about the main causes of poverty and what we can do here in Australia to help those in need. What are the causes of poverty? There is no one cause for poverty across the world. However, there are many components that contribute to poverty. One of those includes overpopulation, imagine living in the same house with 20 other people. There wouldn’t be much space to do anything, countries such as China and India have such an incredibly high population density that they don’t have the necessities to look after everyone. Overpopulation has a large impact to poverty, as it gives a rise to unemployment as there are fewer jobs to support such a large amount of people. This then results in a rise in crime as people are resorted to steal to simply feed for their family and the basic needs. Another contribution to poverty is inadequate education and employment. Something we take for granted in a developed country is the ability to have access to education. Many children in third world counties have diminutive knowledge aboutShow MoreRelatedSocial And Economical Concepts Of Sole Parent Families Essay1519 Words   |  7 PagesAustralian society face solidarity and Division: Sole Parent Families are living on the edge of poverty, with predictions of a 65% increase of sole parent families by 2036, Why are so many Australian sole parent families living so close to or below the calculated poverty line? This essay will firstly provide current and reliable statistics with a brief overview of the identified key social and economical concepts of sole parent families based on ‘Poverty and Exclusion in Modern Australia and (SociologyRead MoreAustralian Aborigines And Their Crisis1304 Words   |  6 PagesMadison Lafitte Karol Chandler-Ezell Cultural Anthropology 231.001 11/17/2014 Australian Aborigines and their Crisis Australia’s Aborigines are often hailed as the world’s longest surviving culture, easily dating back 60,000 years, existing long before many ancient societies such as the Greeks and Romans. Since they are such an old culture many people wonder how they were able to remain in existence for so long while of culture perished around them. 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The Hunger Games (2012) is a film that demonstrates this through amplifying how the power of the rich members in a polarised society are taking control of the poor and separating them in different districts which create specific social rankings. This essay will use the perspective of conflict theory to examine how Australian society is also effected by social stratification and therefore divided in social classes which effects their access to socialRead MoreHealth Inequalities Experienced By Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander People1222 Words   |  5 PagesIslanders experience far more ill health than other Australians. The major inequities experienced among these people include: * †¢ Younger mortality. As an example, Indigenous children aged 0–4 died at more than twice the rate of non-Indigenous children in 2012. Indigenous child death rates fell by 30% from 2001 to 2012 compared with 22% for non-Indigenous children. The largest gap in death rates between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians was in circulatory disease deaths (22% of the gap) followedRead MoreSummary Of Judith Wrights Boora Ring1484 Words   |  6 Pagesability to resonate overtime or make an immediate impact. The function of poetry is to give pleasure to the reader as well as to give the reader perspective on moral ideas. In Judith Wright’s ‘Bora Ring,’ published in 1946 we see a strong sense of the Australian identity and the fear that drove colonial Australia to mass genocide. In Grace Nichols’s ‘Price We Pay For The Sun,’ published in 1982 there is still similarity in the concerns some forty years later. We see that even in different generations andRead More1. Media Report. There Is A Lot Of Poverty Happening Around1363 Words   |  6 Pagesreport There is a lot of poverty happening around the world such as a country called timor leaste, they help out in Thirty Five counties for example South Sudan, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Australia, Central African Republic. Poverty is one of the main problems in underdeveloped countries. Every year, a large number of people from these countries die mainly due to poverty because of the lack of supplies, â€Å"An estimated 41.5 percent of the population is living under the national poverty line in 2005 (UNDP, 2006Read MoreSocioeconomic Factors Of A Student s Life And Lower Academic Outcomes1711 Words   |  7 PagesThe current social climate has no small amount of xenophobia, apathy towards the poor and inequality. Much literature has been written on how particular segments of the population are disadvantaged through their identity, limited access to resources and socialization (Ewing, 2013; Grattan, 2014 October). In addition, connections have been established between disadvantage in the context of a student’s life and lower academic outcomes (Gorski, September 2013, p. 49). The aim of this paper is to consider

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Individual General Profile City of Kelsey Eth/316 Free Essays

Individual General Profile Angel Pacheco 7/22/12 ETH/316 The City of Kelsey boasts a rich and diverse culture with residents ranging from African American, Caucasian, Asian American, and other ethnicities. The occupations that these residents are associated with range from logistics, information technologies, medical personnel, and blue collar occupations. Interaction within a community as tight knit as the City of Kelsey occurs throughout the region. We will write a custom essay sample on Individual General Profile City of Kelsey Eth/316 or any similar topic only for you Order Now Shops in the downtown area offer a place for residents to hang out and relieve stress, as well as aid in spurring the regions economy. The Kelsey Library is a great place for residents of all ages to research the internet, as well as read recreationally. Community events in the City of Kelsey include an annual 10K Marathon, various sports tournaments, an annual balloon festival, a monthly farmers market, and an annual St. Patricks Day Parade. These events offer a wide variety of events to enable community interaction. With over 71,000 students in the Kelsey School system, all regional schools are used to educate students in a group setting. This group setting is paramount in interaction between students. With over 4,500 educators, the school system offers a place for staff members to interact as well. With a history embedded in agriculture, combined with an organic way of life, the community believes in being responsible for the community on an individual basis. With the use of public transportation, and alternative means such as bicycles the community is showing how they are giving back. With the community offering many opportunities for activity such as arts and crafts center, aquatic center, Lake Lora, and the city park it is the responsibility of the community to reciprocate this through careful preservation of these resources. The City of Kelsey has a foundation of preservation of natural resources, but with the rise of population in the last few years the efforts must be dramatically increased. Being socially responsible would be to recognize this problem and allocate funds to maintain the problem with the Sanitation Department and their digester problem. Many of the problems that arise with their greatest resource water, derived from Lake Lora or regional aquifers, may be caused by leeching from a poorly kept solid waste digester. Allocation of funds for this problem is imperative in determining the ability of reversing the degradation of the water quality available to the City of Kelsey. How to cite Individual General Profile City of Kelsey Eth/316, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Mexico and its Importance to US Bilateral relations free essay sample

Mexico is an important asset to the United States, is shares 1,954 miles of border with the United States, and has become an important economic trading partner with the United States. Relations between these two nations are paramount, but we must address a list of issues that need answers, economic reform, homeland security, drug control, migration and even the environment. Every day over one million people cross the border legally, in 2012 two way trade totaled over $500 billion dollars. Mexico has remained one of the biggest tourist destinations for American travelers, and America major source of tourism for Mexico. Cooperation between these two nations is important, it is also important for the United States to help streamline diplomacy with Mexico. In 2010 the Executive Committee for 21st Century Border Management was created to help create advancements in creating a modern, secure and efficient border. This Committee was created to spur ideas on ways to help secure the border, as well as create a better way to manage the legal crossing taking place every day. The attacks September 1 1, 2001 led to the closing of many border crossing, putting a strain on the already verworked crossings, with the implementation of this program new ways are being explored on how we should run these border crossings as well as exploring the re- opening of certain closed crossing points. Cooperative activities between the U. S. and Mexico take place under a number of arrangements such as the U. S. -Mexico Border 2012/2020 Program the North American Development Bank and the Border Environment Cooperation Commission; the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation; the Border Health Commission. These agencies help cooperate with Mexico in regards to the serious environmental issues that have risen ue to population growth and industrialization. In 2008 we began the Merida Initiative seeking to cooperate with Mexico as well as other South American countries in an attempt to curb the growing trend of drug trafficking crimes. Mexico suggested that it was a shared problem because the majority of the money flowing into Mexico was from American drug users. Although as of 2012 congress has appropriated nearly 1. 9 billion dollars to the Merida Initiative. Beginning in 2010 the Merida Initiative took a four pillar approach to break down its attempts at disrupting the drug trafficking and violence problem. The first pillar aims to disrupt the capacity of organized crime to operate and the second pillar focuses on enhancing the capacity of Mexicos government and institutions to sustain the rule of law. The Merida Initiatives third pillar aims to improve border management to facilitate legitimate trade and movement of people while thwarting the flow of drugs, arms, and cash. Finally, the fourth pillar seeks to build strong and resilient communities. Despite the major advances we have made with mexico regarding trade and the furtherance of our partnership as nations, it must be noted the major issues we still ace. The Drug Cartels in mexico currently run a 20 plus billion dollar a year industry. important area of discussion is the immigration issues that have faced the united states from mexico as immigrants attempt to flee mexico for a variety of reasons. Mexico is also a major recipient of remittances, in 2012 the state department estimated over 22 billion dollars worth was sent from relatives living in America. Immigration has become a hot point in current affairs, it is time to analise some options for the future in regards to immigration and options regarding drug rafficking issues. In may of 2013 Obama announced the formation of a bilateral forum on higher education, innovation, and research. With this forum the United States and mexico will encourage typically underprivileged students to attend college and secondary schools providing them access to these schools as well as secondary training programs in STEM fields.. This forum is our first step towards making mexico an economic power as well as a place that can welcome advancing technology. Recommendations. Increasing the funding that is appropriated for the Merida Initiative, this funding hould be sent towards furthering the security checkpoints at Mexicos borders. Updating x ray machines as well as non-invasive body scanners. Money should also be spent in an attempt to inform the Mexican community of the intentions to curb the trend of drug cartel control. The Merida initiative should focus primarily on the first pillar, of disrupting organized Criminal Groups. Scrapping all additional plans for continuing the fence on the American Mexican border. Rather Funds should be appropriated in designating a committee to explore further partnership with Mexico regarding immigration. America needs to accept that Mexican immigrants as a majority are good people looking for honest work. This should no longer be a crime, The process of obtaining a green card should be streamlined, making it accessible to anyone who seeks it out. This policy has to go hand in hand with near total elimination of drug violence. Mexico needs to be regarded as a safe place where both American and Mexican nationals can come and go across the border freely and without safety in question. Mexico should not be treated as a third world nation, we have the potential to help them become a eautiful place to visit. It Just requires some creative policy ideas to meet our goals. Drug Reform has not had much success, in part to the weak policies that have been implemented.

Tuesday, March 31, 2020

Downfall of Macbet Essay Example

Downfall of Macbet Paper Macbets Downfall William Shakespeare’s play Macbeth show three main forces that create the eponym’s downfall. These are the role of the supernatural, the struggle between good and evil and Macbeths ambition guilt and fear. These all combine to create the massive downfall of power that Macbeth experiences during the play. The role of the supernatural has a key part in the creation of the downfall of Macbeths power. This is brought on by many factors associated with the supernatural. The witches are a central part in the supernatural theme. The storms that are associated with the witches whenever they come on stage reflect a violation of the natural order of witch the weather is meant to be. The worst of these storms happens on the night of Duncan’s murder. They also summon the apparitions that give the predictions to Macbeth that lead to his downfall. The siliquy of the dagger shows that Macbeth was completely obsessed with the thoughts of the murder. This would also be a warning sign to the audience that Macbeth was morally unfit to undertake the murder. Banquo’s ghost also portrays this sense of unfitness towards Macbeth’s conscience. We will write a custom essay sample on Downfall of Macbet specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Downfall of Macbet specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Downfall of Macbet specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Macbeth would be experiencing an unstable mind state due to the fact of the supernatural controlling his life. This would have in turn lead to Macbeths downfall. The struggle between good and evil created havoc for Macbeth’s life and therefore contributed to his downfall. The good side is portrayed in Macbeth through noble Banquo and the rightful king Duncan. Macbeth juxtaposes these characters during his downfall. On the contrary there is the evil side of the play. This is portrayed through the witches and their many spells. The most important of these are the apparitions that they use to show Macbeth his future. These are very vague and only tell of the good to come but not of the evil. These trick Macbeth into thinking that everything will be all right. This later contributed to Macbeth’s downfall. Lady Macbeth also portrays evil herself. After finishing the deed of killing Duncan she believes that the blood has stained her â€Å"What will these hands ne’er be clean? † This shows the distracting power that the evil has on the characters. Macbeth also plays part of showing the theme of evil through darkness and blood. The blood on his hands symbolizes the guilt that he has about the murder. He portrays darkness through the line â€Å"stars hide your fires let no light see my backward deep desires† Here Macbeth is taking about how he is almost possessed by the thought of murder. He gets caught up in these thoughts and this is a contributing factor to his downfall. Macbeth’s ambition guilt and fear all had a huge contribution to the downfall that he experienced. Ambition was one of Macbeth’s fatal flaws. This was what ultimately led to his downfall. This was combined with Lady Macbeth’s ambitions. She is the one that suggests entertaining Duncan after hearing the news of the witches’ predictions. If Lady Macbeth hadn’t pushed forward Macbeth’s ambition and convinced him to kill Duncan the whole downfall would not have happened. Guilt was another factor that contributed to Macbeth’s downfall. Macbeth says, â€Å"I could not say ‘amen’†¦ Macbeth will sleep no more†. This puts forward the guilt that Macbeth would have been feeling at the time. Yet after saying this he still does not repent. This guilt then led to fear that Macbeth feels. â€Å"We have scratched the snake not killed it. † This quote is Macbeth referring to the predicament that he is facing. The ambition to kill Duncan that lead to guilt and consequently fear played an important role in Macbeth’s downfall. In William Shakespeare’s play Macbeth we see the eponym face many factors that contribute to his downfall. These are the roles of the supernatural being the witches the daggers and Banquo’s ghost. The struggle between good and particularly evil with Macbeth being sucked in form the good side by the withes and them pushed ahead by Lady Macbeth. This is all combined with Macbeth’s Ambitions guilt and consequently fears. All of these reasons combine to the outcome of Macbeth’s downfall.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Africa.. essays

Africa.. essays Africas Resistance to the Portuguese The African history has been affected tremendously due to the influence of some European countries. Portugal, who probably had the greatest impact on the continent, was not shy in invading what they thought to be profitable circumstances. One of these areas that they profited from was the kingdom of Kongo. Kongo was a major Bantu-speaking kingdom astride the Congo River in west-central Africa, probably founded in the 14th century. It was governed by a king, the manikongo, whose economic power was based upon trade in ivory, hides, slaves, and a shell currency of western Africa. Within a few years after the Portuguese first encountered the kingdom in 1484, the sixth manikongo, Nzinga Mbemba, later Alfonso 1, converted to Christianity and extended diplomatic and economic relations with Portugal. The agreement soon collapsed, however, as the Portuguese extended their slave-raiding activities. By 1570 the power of the Kongo kingdom had begun to decline, and severe internal tensions had developed. Alfonso I knowing what was going on wrote a series of papers to King Joao III of Portugal. In these papers, Alfonso I pleaded with the king to take away all the corrupt Portuguese from his kingdom. With false assurance from the king of Portugal, he asked to have sent those people of religious and medical backgrounds to help modernize his kingdom. With the corruptness still noticeable in the Kongo, Alfonso I was forced to pass a law stating that ...any white man living in our Kingdoms and wanting to purchase goods in any way should first inform three of our noble men and officials of our court whom we rely upon in this matter... (57). These futile attempts of writing letters to the king were not making any significance. The king of Portugal was money hungry along with the majority of all his servants who worked for him down in Africa. ...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

International business environment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

International business environment - Essay Example The paper describes the process of globalization that results in mutual satisfaction of international economic relations as man-made and natural barriers fall. The process itself may have positive as well as negative effects on country's economy. The process grew strength in the early 19990s. Globalization offer opportunities that entail effective resource allocation and so higher per capita incomes. Faster integration to the system can be promoted by new methods and ways of production driven by change in technology. Globalization has made it easier to divide production into several sub-processes, so labor-intensive sections of the production process could be gotten from abroad. This atomization made international trade in intermediate goods a growing substantial feature of international trade. The rapid change in international demand and supply conditions has besides bringing economies together, made relations more composite. Another issue that has made international trade complex i s the weight of the upcoming markets in the world economy has become substantially more prominent. Although globalization entails various dimensions, it usually refers to economic ties and processes. Economic globalization pertains the expansion of production, consumption, trade, savings, and investment made to markets beyond regional and national ones. For countries that are developing, the risk of growing inequality linked with active participation in the global economy attributed to institutional weaknesses relating to being poor. (Prasad 2003, p.4). This paper tries to bring out a fair view of globalization; pointing out the benefits and risks that globalization has for countries that are developing. The paper looks at the evidence and controversies that can be used against and in favor of globalization and also the policy options and prospects. It also tries to assist Palomia by looking at its economy and reporting the risks and benefits of globalization. Gains from globalizati on Benefits from Globalization can lead to advances, in efficiency and gains, in economic wellbeing. Trade improves division of labor as countries that specialize in a given field gains comparative advantage over the rest. This is a very vital part of economic empowerment as a country like Palomia may have the advantage on something over the others. Deeper relationships and penetration of international markets will enable and encourage and motivate consumers and producers to reap the benefits of economies of scale. The competitive international market will also reduce profits of monopolies. This incentivizes businesses to seek innovations that are cost efficient and advances what they sell. Gains in efficiency also should bring advancement in economic growth and so resulting in higher per capita incomes. This could be good prospects for developing nations as it is able to make more money to stir more growth. Globalization also has assisted many poor countries in the world achieve hi gher growth rates and minimize the number of citizens living in absolute poverty. For consumers, globalization or international trade expands the range of good services available. The rate at which goods and services get innovated is also encouraging making the trade dynamic. The participation of countries that are still developing in the process of globalization can allow them better apply their comparative advantages. This making them bring in advanced technologies, management experience and foreign capital. It is also prosperous for eliminating monopolistic characteristics and toughening market competition (Bigman 2002, p.10). Risks involved in globalization While providing more growth opportunities for countries that are still growing, the globalization process also poses enormous risks. To begin with, economic globalization has indeed expanded instead of reducing the